Creatine HCl is characterized by binding a molecule of hydrochloric acid, which guarantees its good solubility in comparison to other forms of creatine. It is postulated that it may be reflected in the application of its lower amount and causing the same effect at the same time.
Creatine is a tripeptide naturally occurring in the organism, which plays a range of important functions. Its main task is to store energy needed i.a. to utilize the work of muscles, heart and the brain.
Biosynthesis and occurrence in the organism
Creatine is produced in the liver, kidney and pancreas from three amino acids - glycine, arginine and methionine. From these places, by means of circulation, it reaches other tissues of the organism - mainly muscle, skeletal, muscle-heart tissues and also nervous tissue in the central nervous system and it even reaches endothelial cells. The breakdown of creatine takes place by separating a water molecule from creatine (and its phosphorylated form - phosphocreatine), providing creatine. It is not a toxic metabolite, its concentration in the kidneys and urine is clinically monitored in order to asses kidney functions.
Participation in metabolic processes
The functioning of cells is dependent to a large extent on the amount of available chemical energy, the carrier of which is ATP - an unsteady compound, which cannot be stored in a cell. Therefore, the organism found another way to store high-energy phosphate residues - the excess of ATP in the participation of the enzyme - creatine kinase “gives away” its phosphate residue (creating ADP) to creatine, from which we obtain phosphocreatine.
Creatine kinase appears in a few forms - mitochondrial form (“deals with” ATP coming from the respiratory chain), cytosol (like the previous one, only in relation to ATP produced from the pathway of glycolysis) and also taking part in the reactions requiring energy (e.g. muscle contraction). This enzyme works in two ways - it may create ATP from ADP and phosphocreatine or phosphocreatine from ATP and creatine.
The influence on muscle development
Apart from the obvious influence of creatine on increasing the amount of available ATP in the cells of skeletal muscles, which results in more effective and longer muscle contractions (i.a. the growth of strength measured by the increase of carried weights by ca. 9 kg in 8 weeks was observed), it also has a range of other positive effects.
A protein, which physiologically limits muscle hypertrophy of skeletal muscles is myostatin. It was proven that creatine supplementation contributes to inhibiting the activity of this protein (in another mechanism than normally coupled with GASP-1), which results in increased growth of muscle mass.
The growth of the thickness of muscle fibers also takes place in a separate mechanism. A directly observed effect is intracellular activation of cascades (i.a. MAPK and ERK), which intensify the processes of protein biosynthesis, while indirectly observed effect is the drop of catabolism (oxidation) of structural muscle proteins, which positively increases nitrogen balance.
From the point of view of saving energy sources, it is postulated that a large amount of phosphocreatine may contribute to decreased mobilization of glycogen for the needs of glycolysis, thanks to which the supplies enable longer effort. The production of lactic acid may also be limited, which by acidifying the environment provides the symptoms of fatigue and the necessity to stop the effort.
Muscle tissue is not the only one in reference to which we observe positive influence of creatine. The effects of its activity are also visible in the central nervous system.
When it comes to the glutaminergic conduction, it indirectly inhibits the inflow of calcium cations to neurons, induced by glutamate, which have toxic effects on a cell. This effect is possible by increasing the amount of ATP necessary for the functioning of the pumps which “throw away” calcium in conjunction with sodium outside a cell.
Attention is also paid to the fact that creatine may indirectly inhibit the development of depression and improve dopaminergic transmission and memory processes (influencing NMDA receptors).
As it was earlier mentioned, creatine may also appear in the endothelium of cells. Also by the growth of ATP production and adenosine derivatives, which influence specific purinergic receptors A2A, the decreased production of adhesive molecules takes place for immune-competitive cells. In combination with the decreased production of homocysteine (with a proatherogenic effect, produced in the higher amount when creatine is not externally supplemented), from S-adenosylmethionine (taking part in the synthesis of creatine) it may decrease the development of atherosclerosis.
To sum up, REVANGE Creatine HCL is a dietary supplement addressed to people, who want to maximize their effects in strength disciplines and also improve body composition. It may also serve as “doping for the brain” and also in combination with the rules of healthy eating, it may contribute to the prevention of civilization diseases.